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Education should be given the top priority. If India is to march ahed and to take its legitimate place in the comity of nations, it must wage war against mass illiteracy and ignorance.
‘Publication of the speech and writing of Satyapriya Roy is a historic event. This Edition is expected to be followed by the publication of a collection of his speeches and writing in bengali. This English Edition does not claim to be all comprehensive but it is expected to allow the readers to have a glimpse of the thoughts and activities of this teacher and the man far above the everage. He pioneered the teacher’s movement of his time in the country, that has attained considerable height.
A short note on the life and the activities of Satyapriya Roy will be of help for the understanding of the courses of evevts partaining to teaching community and education particularly at the Secondary stage of the time.
On 1st March in 1907 Satyapriya Roy was born in a well-to-do family at Singaie in the district of Mymensing, now in Bangladesh. He had a bright academin career. He graduated from the Anandamohan College of Mymensing town with 1st Class Honours in English. He did his M.A. in English standing 1st from Dhaka University in 1927. In B.T.Examination he stood 1st in the 1st Class. In spoken English he retained the 1st position and passed the Police Service Commission Examination with equal credit.
Unexpectedly in 1929 Satyapriya Roy joined Mrityunjoy H.E. School in his own district as an assistant teacher, shifted to Jaffarganj H.E. School and then to Kanungopara H.E. School in Chittagong. In those days secondary school teachers were paid pittance, poverty practically destitution was their perennial companion, yet Satyapriya Roy persisted in sticking to this profesion.
In 1936 Satyapriya Roy took upon himself the responsibility of Kalidhen Institution at Calcutta as the Headmaster. This school was then at an early formative stage. He server this institution in the same capacity to the end of his service life.
It is a mystery what prompted Satyapriya Roy, then a young man of robust built, a University Blue with brilliant academic record and success in Public Service Commission Examination, to choose the life of privation and hard struggle of a secondary teacher in pre-thirties. Door of college service was wide open to him. In pre-thirties to a young man with such brilliant academic career service in the government or non-government departments with fat salary was not a mirage. But this man felt deep in his heart that he has not the cut for all these. Down to earth man is sure to wonder. But visions differ in time and space; and in intensity of dreams. Satyapriya chose a mission, not simply a profession.
Perhaps Satyapriya thought the secondary stage to be the most sensitively formative in a teacher’s life. The opportunity for building all-comprehensive character of the up-coming generation and thereby of the nation at this stage was to be caught by the forelock. Not an idle conjecture, his whole life-history confirms this. As a teacher of different schools he came in direct
contact with the problems of secondary schools under the British rule. The teachers and other educational workers had to work for pittance, payment of salary was irregular, financial aid from the Government was either nill or meagre, school had to manage their finance with fees from the student, poor people had no capacity for bearing the cost of education, school ware few and far between. Under feudal management there was no security of the service of teachers, curricula and syllabi of the institution were inadequate for their colonial content etc. were the major problems. However bold and heroic, individual efforts at striking the unjust system was of no avail.
The teaching community had alredy began organising themselves for the redressal of their grievances. The All Bengal Teachers’ Association(A.B.T.A) had been born in 1921.Satyapriya Roy was drawn to it. By 1946 he was very much active in the work of the Association. Though the tragedy of pertition of the country and cancerous communal divide trailed behind, freedom came with some expectations. But the arrogance of power blinded the new rules so much that they paid scant attention to the grievances of the employees of schools and to the appeals for their redressal. Even mass mobilisation of the teachers and other educational workers failed to evoke response.
Satyapriya Roy alongwith a few other vanguards in the organisation emphasised the need of more determined actions against government apathy.Forms of movement should have to be heightened.That movedmass of the teacher and other educational workers. He came up to the fore-front of the movement. In 1948 at the insistence of the pressure group a general convention held at Bharat Sabha Hall in Calcuttadecided on a day's cease-work on 1stSeptember that year in support of the demand for dearness allowance for all working in the secondary schools.The strike was successful, a forward ster.In 1950 at the Bishnupur Conference Satyapriya was elected Vice-President of the A.B.T.A,
in 1952 he became the Working President. In 1953 Satyapriya Roy was elected General Secretary of A.B.T.A. and Monoranjan Roy was elected President. In the Chinsurah conference (1953) the constitution of the A.B.T.A. was amended to make the organisation more dynamic. Dynamic it became under his leadership. The historic teachers’ movement of 1954 was the outcome.
Prior to the consideration of the supremacy of Satyapriya Roy and his likes, the A.B.T.A. leadership suffered from hesitation of wielding the tools of the working class-street demonstration with shouting slogans, strike, mass squatting, courting arrest etc, against injustice, for winning rights and privileges. In 1954, under the new leadership A.B.T.A. broke down that barrier and decided firmly to wield those tools. Street demonstration, strike, squatting, courting arrest were taken up as in the teachers’ movement in 1954. Doubt about its propriety was dispelled. A broad alliance was forged with students, guardians’ all other working people and the left political forces. The teachers movement gathered tremendous momentum and turned into a mass upsurge in West Bengal. The Government repression reached its peak, military was called in to supress it and curfew was clamped down on the city of Calcutta for three consecutive days. The reply to it too was sharp and widespread.
TheGovernment had to sneak out the limit of administrative property by allowing the A.B.T.A. Executive Committee to hold the meeting of the whole body inside the prison. the Gevernment was forced to come to terms with that movement. This epoch-making event in West Bengal had great impact on the teaching community all over India and entire democratic movement in the state. Satyapriya Roy became a symbol of revolt against neglect and injustice perpetrated by the Congres Government in the state and at the centre. In 1961 at his initiative and under his Presidenship the All India Federation of Secondary Teachers was formed. He remained its President for six years.
From 1955 to 1965 series of teachers’ movement were launched. Arm-twisting by the Congress Government enforced a lull in democratic movements in the country in the early and mid sixties. Under his guidance the teachers’ movement in West Bengal broke that deceptive placidity in 1964 and 1965. Under his able leadership partial success were scored. But on basic questions situation remained the same. The massive agitation of 1966 came to be a turning point. Strikes, mass-squatting and courting of arrest by a large number ofteachers and other educational workers failed to move the Government. Adamant persistence of the Government in its anti-teacher and anti-educational
policy demonstrated that normal democratic means of making the ruling party least responsive had been exhausted. A political twist was to be given to it. Satyapriya Roy, a liberal democrat at the start, took the leap. He opted for the slogan: the Anti-Teacher and Anti-Education Congress government in the coming election. ‘Satyapriya Roy did not only help the change of courses in the teachers’ movement. His experience in the teachers’ movement did a lot to bring about great change in himself. He was pliable to reason. History has proved in unequivocal terms that the slogan was correct. The congress government was ousted. The United Front that ousted it guaranteed security of service for all in schools, granted enhanced D.A., democratized school management, introduced pension for teachers and employees and embarked upon radial reforms in the academic sphere. He was one of the founders of the A.B.T.T. College and served as its President for several years.
The answer of the Congress with the direct connivance of the Central Government to all those gains was the clamping down of a semifascist terror in the state. Particular target was the field of education. Teachers and other educational workers were no more dismissed, they were simply butchered or driven out from schools under threat to life in a selective way. Their academic activities consisted in leakage of question papers and encouraging and organising mass-copying in examination. Demean the value of education, demorilize the teachers and students, rear-up an army of anti-social goons out of the student community, were the programmers of the congress in schools and colleges.
The Congress seized power through a rigged election. The A.B.T.A. under Satyapriya Roy’s leadership rose to the occasion. ‘Save Education’ movement was launched. He took the final plunge in his life and embraced Marxism and Leninism as his philosophy of life. Hard facts of life’s struggle converted the liberal democrat into a communist. He joined C.P.I(M) in 1971.
To Satyapriya Roy the teachers’ movement was never independent of academic movement. He held teaching as a mission-a mission for national rejuvination. His profound understanding of the academic problems illuminated the teachers’ movement to strive and fight for radical changes in curriculum and syllabus. He contributed to the progressive tint in respect of Secondary Education in the report of the Kothari Commission. Satyapriya Roy, was a teachers’ leader of special mould.
Satyapriya Roy remained the Secretary of A.B.T.A. till 1964, when he was elevated to the post of President. He held this post till he was appointed the Administrator of the West Bengal Board of Secondary Education. In 1954 he was elected to the Legislative Council of West Bengal from the Teachers’ Constituuncy.He won subsequent elections and was its Member till it was abolished by the United Front Government. In 1969 he was elected to the State Assembly and became the Education Minister of the state. He was re-elected in 1971.
Twice in his life he went to jail. In 1954 he was arrested and put into Jail. In 1966 he was detained as a securuty prisoner.
Satyapriya Roy came to be widely known as an academic personality and an undisputed teachers’ leader in the country. The Government of India instituted an Education Commission in 1964, popularly known as the Kothari Commission. Satyapriya Roy was included in it. He served the Commission as a member of its Task Force on Secondary Education.
International recognition of his paramount position as a teachers’ leader in the country soon came. He represented the East in the International Teachers’ Organisation (FISE) and visited Sri Lanka, Democratic Republic of Germany and the Soviet Union as a representative of the F I S E. On invitation from the Teachers’ Organisation of the country, Satyapriya Roy visited China in 1957.
On 11th February in 1978 Satyapriya Roy suddenly passed away. He left a void in the education movement in the country but he has cut out a path for us and we are to march along.
( Excerpts from the Book Speaches and Writings of Satyapriya Roy )
The Epoch Making Struggle of 1954 : An Overview A Prologue
- Long coveted freedom: Motherland sliced. Scar of separation on Bengals’ bosom.
Misery and harassment of the post-independence teaching community: Report on Teachers’ condition by economist Durga Prosad Bhattacharyya:
“The issues that it raises are difficult and cannot be easily solved; but it would be highly risky-really dangerous-to evade. The short sighted men who are calling for strong repressive measures against what are ready symptoms of a serious malady are doing great disservice to the future of the country. They would be precipitating a crisis which would soon get out of their control”
- disillusionment about independence. Anti-education role of the ruling class developed awareness among the people: objective condition for an upheaval prevailing.
- Subjective condition: on 22 August 1948 a convention was held: it gave a call of confrontation. 6 point motion moved: revision of pay etc in consultation with the ABTA, allocation on education to be raised, discrimination of pay of the H.M. and teachers to be revoked, dearness allowance to be raised, a monitoring committee be formed and cease work to start w.e.f. 1st September in case of non - compliance by the government
The Struggle is on
- One day’s token cease work on 1 September 1948; Enthusiasm not only in Calcutta but also in almost all districts of West Bengal: Assembly of teachers after cease work: discontent and unrest culminated in movement.
- Student Community lends support: student strike and student rally along main roads of Calcutta: repetition of pre-independence picture of integration of different movements.
- Wrath of the authority for cease work: Ajit Das, a teacher of Calcutta, Santosh Bhattacharyya (subsequently a martyr) and his colleague Himangsu Sekhar Bhattacharyya of Baharampur Victim of sacking - termination letter withdrawn in the latter cases while Ajit Das reappointed in Kalidhan Institution under Satyapriya Ray.
- Two significant incidents of the period: (i) West Bengal Teachers’ Association formed by the ABTA started opposing the movement. ABTA publicly severed all relations with the WBTA. (ii) In protest against anti-education role of the govt. Primary teachers and college university teachers also resolved to start movement under the leadership of their respective organizations. On 15th and 16th November, 1949 Primary, Secondary and College teachers jointly observed two days’ token cease work. Three lines of movement mingled into a confluence of three streams.
- 28th Annual conference at chinsurah (April 1953): oath of struggle: This conference firmly resolves that unless the demands of the teaching community be accepted immediately, secondary teachers of West Bengal, in protest of govt. negligence to education and educators of West Bengal, will be away from school sine die from 10th February, 1954 until and unless the recommendations of granting pay scale for teachers along with D.A. to the tune of Rs 35 be granted. The conference also resolves to apprise the govt. of this clear cut proposal and expresses hope that the Govt. shall prove it responsible by accepting the just demands of the teaching community before any untoward situation crops up. The resolution was unanimous. The Bhagirathi witnessed surging enthusiasm among the delegates present.
- Year-long programme was drawn up with a view to mobilizing popular support. Those were: (1) Constitution of working council on central and regional basis. (2) Signature campaign in support of resolutions. (3) Effort to be made to mobilize support from people of all walks of life. (4) Fund collection drive per capita contribution of Rs. 5/- from teachers along with mass collection. (5) Education week to be observed from 3rd to 9th August, 1953 for publicity and propaganda.
- Able leadership was elected for steering the movement. President veteran leader Monaranjan Sengupta, one of the founders of the Association; general secretary. Satyapriya Ray, Editor of the Journal of the Association Anila Debi.
- New year came. Preparation for the ensuing cease work programme was elevated to the Zenith during the month of January 1954 and upto 9th February. Leadership plunged headlong into the stream of preparatory activity. Leftist and other opposition leaders stood by.
- Congress govt. smelt a rat. Chief Minister Dr. Bidhan Chandra Ray offered nominal pay increase along with some privileges. But proposals of the ABTA was winked at. Discriminatory proposal was made by recommending pay of teachers according to qualification. Demand for D.A. to the tune of Rs. 35/- per month was sidetracked. Subsequently it was committed that if the school authority agrees to pay 50% of the D.A., the govt. would pay the rest. It was a machination on the part of the govt. source of school fund was student fee. So financial liability on school would be passed on to student-guardians. ABTA was opposed to enjoying enhanced pay etc shifting the incidence on students. Hence the aforesaid proposal was an intriguing tactics to evade responsibility of the govt.
- 29 January, 1954. A mass meeting was held at wellington square as preparatory to the ensuing cease work. It was presided over by Sri Barin Ghosh. The decision was taken to observe cease work by teachers w.e.f. 10th February at the call of the ABTA. The charter of demands was: D.A. Rs. 35/- per month, minimum pay: undergraduate teachers Rs. 70/-, graduate Rs. 80/-, B.A.B.T. Rs. 100/- and MABT Rs. 120/-. Existing minimum pay was: undergraduate Rs. 50/-, graduate Rs. 60/-, B.A.B.T. Rs. 75/-, M.A.B.T. Rs. 90/-.
- 2nd February to 9th February “Struggle for Education week” observed. All party Teachers’ struggle committee was formed to support proposed struggle of teachers. 6th February a mammoth gathering was held. Leaders from various countries attended the meeting and extended support to the proposed struggle. The meeting was presided over by renowned journalist Mohit Kumar Maitra.
- C.M. Bidhan Chandra Ray made some confusing remarks in a statement. He was exposed in the large gathering at shradhananda park on 8th February which was convened by All Party Teachers’ struggle committee. ABTA was determined on its resolution and got everything ready for the historic struggle on 10th February.
Annals of Struggle re-written by the strik
- Initially there was some confusion whether strike or cease work but the borderline between the two was effaced by deluging struggle. The school gates from the foothills of the Himalayas to the sea beach of the Bay of Bengal remained locked. Not only collapse of teaching learning, every activity in the schools remained closed. Teachers and non-teaching staff of most of the schools participated in the programme. History was written anew history of struggle.
- News of strike by teachers appeared on the front pages of all newspapers
- Working class and their trade union, organization of peasants, refugees, students, college & university teachers’ association etc lent able support.
- People realized that the principal aim of the struggle of the teachers and non-teaching staff is to save the system of education.
- ABTA voiced the slogan: Demand for education is national demand: this demand must be conceded to.
- 11 February: Many new schools joined strike. Calcutta corporation adopted resolution in support of the strikers.
- Heated debate and hot exchanges inside the Assembly
- Strikers marched to the Assembly. Noted novelist Manik Bandyapadhyay, popular singer Salil Chowdhury, well known artist Khaled Chowdhury joined the march.
- March was halted by police, 243 strikers were arrested.
- Strikers started squatting hundreds of teachers and non-teaching staff of all ages, septua generians as well as new entrants, poet Dines Das, Hiren Bhattacharyya of Gananatya, Sudhir Karan and many others not to speak of the top ranking leadership of the ABTA, squatted on the concrete floor of historic esplanade east (Presently Sidhu Kanhu Dahar)
- An emerging dimension of the annals of mass movement in Bengal People extolled and adored by the society as educators having their seats on the dusty road everybody curious and eager.
- Supper supplied by hotel workers and workers of merchant offices.
- 12 February: city observed strike at the call of all party teachers’ struggle committee. Howrah municipality adopted a resolution in support of the strike. Staff council of many colleges also followed suit.
- But the cabinet of Dr. Ray and the ministers remained indifferent cabinet meeting held but not a single word uttered on teachers’ strike
- 13 February: Squatting grew forty hour old defying the scorching mid-day sun and the chilly bite of late winter dawn not to speak of the dust from passing vehicles etc. All party teachers’ struggle committee took the initiative in having a reasonable settlement C.M. on the eve of his leaving for Delhi announced the formation of a three member commission which was to report within three months. The govt. was to opt for a course of action later. All party teachers’ struggle committee held a meeting wherein it was decided that people from all walks of life was to hold a march on to the Assembly in support of the striking teachers and N.T. staff. Sec 144 was promulgated around the Assembly. Decision was taken to violate section 144
- 15 February: Teachers and non-teaching staff started march on to the Assembly. The budget session was due that day. Permission for rally was not accorded. Inside the Assembly as soon as the governor’s address started, opposition members requested the governor to meet the squatting teachers which was turned down by the governor. The opposition M.L.A.s staged a united walk-out.
- 16 February: Committee for prevention of crisis in education convened a meeting in the university campus- a call was given to the students. Emergency meeting of the council for monitoring the struggle was held at night. The meeting resolved that sec. 144 would be broken on 17 February. If the govt. does not concede to the recommendations made by the Board of Secondary Education within 24 hours four volunteer teachers, will take part in the civil disobedience by turn.
Bloody Attack of Reaction : Police Atrocity
- At dead of night all on a sudden police pounced upon the teachers, 243 heads including the president, secretary and magazine secretary of ABTA were arrested- the squatting camp was ransacked. The C.M was out to put down the movement with an iron hand.
- With the outbreak of morning the news of police atrocity spread every nook and corner of the city. It was hardly noon when streaming populace took the way to the Assembly. Thousands and thousands of voices thundered in protest against the arrest of the leadership . The rally was led by the opposition MLAS which included veteran freedom fighter and devout follower of Gandhiji Suresh Chandra Bandhopadhyay.
- Inside the Assembly opposition leader Jyoti Basu moved adjournment motion. Replying to the motion the C.M. issued venomous vituperative statement based on falsehood against the teachers.
- One after another the opposition leaders spoke in the Assembly protesting the arrest and requested the C.M. to address the twenty thousand strong gathering outside the Assembly which was forthwith turned down.
- Police arrested two leaders at the head of the rally of thousands of people. Thereafter many a people were under arrest, one of whom was Ambika Chakrobortty, one of the heroes of Chittagong Youth Rebel. Many were wounded in the attack by mounted police. Lathi charge, tear gas shelling continued indiscriminately.
- Within a short while a procession of bank employees and merchant office workers reached another gate of the Assembly. The entire esplanade area, the vicinity of Dalhousi raged with demonstration It was as if the whole of Calcutta was down on the roads.
- Police retaliated with indiscriminate and desperate lathi charge and firing. Six attained martyrhood-another one breathed his last the next day.
- In the way of showing solidarity to teachers movement Rabindranath Sarkar, Ajit De, Narayan Swami, Yeasin, Pravabati Debi and Susil Bosu, son of Dr. Sahayram Basu lay down their lives none of whom were teachers or non teaching staff. They were from various cross sections- rickshawpuller, employee etc who came to protest against the Govts neglect and reluctance to education.
- 167 workers of political parties were arrested, another 44 were arrested on the next day after the police carried on search in house premises. All of these people were workers and leaders of the parties opposed to congress. Hostels of Vidyasagar College and other Colleges were the target of police. Warrant was issued against the leader of the opposition and Communist party leader Jyoti Basu. Sri Basu took shelter inside the Assembly. The Speaker of the Assembly Saila Kumar Mukerjee gave the ruling that Sri Basu could not be arrested from the Assembly House. This led to strife within the Congress Government. The city was handed over to the military. The entire focus was changed.
- Chief Mister B.C.Ray tried for appeasement by granting bits of relief.
- ABTA issued call for civil disobedience. The law that cares a fig for teachers as well as education can command no-obedience this was the battle cry. Thirty teachers both male and female broke sec 144 and courted arrest.
Peripheral Extension of the Fight
- The news of this struggle of the teachers reached countries far and near. Message of greetings began to pour in from abroad. Teachers’ Associations of the other provinces of the country greeted the ABTA. President of the World Teachers organisation sent greetings. News of the strike appeared in the newspapers of many countries of the world. The New York Times of the U.S.A. published news of the struggle for two consecutive days. It received frontpage covering on one day. News papers, in Calcutta and many other states published editorial in support of the demands of teachers.
- Celebrated doyens of the cultural world extended support to it.
- 19 Feb. Adjournment motion was moved in the Assembly for the second time by the opposition members. It was put to vote after discussion. The result was 54-128 in favour of the motion
- Parliamentary battle was waged in the legislative council also at the same time
- Periphery of fight was extended upto the Rajya Sabha also. On 17th Feb communist leader, P. Sundarayya, Dange and Bimal Chandra Ghosh demanded discussion on teachers’ strike in the Rajya Sabha. Chairman Dr. Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan scheduled it on the agenda to be taken up on 18 Feb. During deliberation on the issue in the Rajya Sabha noted historian and nominated MP Dr. Kalidas Nag, celebrated educationist Dr. Debprasad Ghosh lent support to the motion over and above opposition MPs . Home minister Dr Kailashnath Katju criticized the squatting teachers in his address in reply to debate. On the next day, Dr Lanka Sundaram moved an adjournment motion in the Lok Sabha in support of teachers’ strike.
- The speaker of the Lok Sabha allowed two hours for debate on the motion. The motion was defeated by 66-259 votes. Many a daily regarded the adjournment motion in support of teachers’ strike as the first no-confidence motion.
- On 21 February working committee of the ABTA convened a meeting at the students Hall. Presence of the six leaders of the working committee was essential. Prayer for their release was made. The Prayer was turned down but permission was accorded to hold the meeting inside the Jail premises. Sixty out of eighty members attended the meeting. The meeting was adjourned till next afternoon after an hour’s deliberation. A few proposals were finalised that may form the basis of settlement
- 22 Feb. The president of the ABTA met the C.M. with the proposals. The Association set four conditions for withdrawal of the movement. Those are as follows : 1) Everybody arrested in connection with this movement have to be released. Final decision for withdrawing the movement will be taken by the working committee. 2) No punitive measure will be taken against teachers. 3) No punitive measure will be taken against any body for taking part in the movement. 4) chapter of discussion between the Govt. and the Association will not be closed. Chief Minister Dr. Ray stressed on withdrawal of the movement.
- A general meeting was held to talk about the outcome of the discussion. Initially there was some difference of opinion on the issue of withdrawal but finally resolution was adopted in favour of withdrawal. At 8 p.m. the president of the Association, Monaranjan Sengupta made an announcement of withdrawal of the movement. He also vehemently objected, on behalf of the Association to fee increase to pay 50% of D.A. on the part of the school authority.
- Chief Minister Dr. Ray issued a statement at the night (of 22nd Feb) expressing his pleasure at the withdrawal of the strike. He also requested the teachers to attend their respective school
- On 23 Feb Govt. moved the court to withdraw the cases against the teachers detained. 321 teachers and 71 political leaders and workers arrested in connection with the movement were released. Satyapriya Ray, Sailen Banerjee and Anila Debi also were released. General Secretary Satyapriya Ray, after his release apprised all of the achievement of the struggle reiterating the necessity of further struggle in case of need. He also expressed his thankes and congratulations to the political parties and personalities and above all the people of the state for lending support to the movement.
- On 21.3.1954 a meeting was held at the university Institute hall with Monorajan Sengupta on the Chair. 350 including 60 women attended. Satyapriya Ray declared in the meeting: The agitation by the teachers assumed a national character. The meeting expressed deep sorrow for the persons killed in the agitation. Govt. was held responsible for mob violence. Satyapriya Ray said, “ Teachers’ struggle was non violent. It also proves that nothing can be gained from the Govt. unless it is compelled”.
- It is thus that in course of the twelve days of 1954 a new dimension was added to the movement of the secondary teachers of West Bengal vis-à-vis education movement and above all overall mass movement of the country that has a rich heritage.
- The positive aspect of this struggle was felt not only in the movement of the three tiers of teachers in the state but also in the entire mass movement.
- One important achievement of this movement is : I) the slogan ‘demand for education is a national demand’ was subsequently echoed and reechoed in a number of states of India. ii) All India secondary teachers’ federation emerged with ABTA as its vanguard. General Secretary of the ABTA Satyapriya Ray became the President of the All India organisation. ABTA occupied a prestigeous position in the international organisation FISE ABTA was enlisted as a member of the said organisation.
- The forward march of the fighting association was on and it held the lesson of the 12 days that shook the country in high esteem.